Day 2 :
Baghiyatallah University, Iran
Keynote: Stabilization of probiotic bacteria using a novel microencapsulation system especially designed for infant formula (IF)
Time : 09:30-10:10
Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product as the guidelines by the FAO/WHO point out. Th e presence of pathogenscan present a challenge to young infants, consequently while preparing PIF extra precautions need to be taken. PIF is currentlyprepared at room temperature and thus the activity of pathogenic bacteria is maintained. According to WHO guidelines, PIFshould be prepared at 70°C in order to destroy any contaminant which may exist in PIF. However, at this temperature, probiotic bacteria which may be contained in PIF may also be destroyed thus the advantages of probiotics will not be manifested.
PolyCaps has developed a unique microencapsulation technology which protects probiotic bacteria (PB) against hot water (70°C)during reconstitution of PIF in accordance with the new WHO guidelines. Harmful pathogens will of course be destroyed ordisactivated. Th e microcapsules are designed to dissolve immediately aft er cooling the liquid to feeding temperature releasing the alive PB. Additionally, the microencapsulation system ensures a low water activity (aw) and protects the PB which allows a high viability and an extended shelf life.
The microencapsulation system consists of an inner core containing PB and other ingredients, which is further surrounded by a unique 2-layer coating comprising at least one smart polymer. Th e latter forms a solid gel when heated, thereby preventing the transition of heat and water to the PB in the core. However, the solid gel layer dissolves aft er cooling to feeding temperature, allowing live PB to be released in the liquid.
Huidtherapie Haaften, Netherlands
Keynote: The skin-gut axis: A new way of looking at and treating chronical skin diseases like eczema and acne
Time : 10:10-10:50
- Probiotic Microorganism |Mechanism of Action of Probiotics |Dairy Technology |Probiotic and Digestive Health |Pediatrics Nutrition |Gut Microbiome and Microbiota
Cornell University, USA
After starting her career in cardiovascular medical research at Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, Oregon in the USA, Rebecca Quesnell moved on to achieve PhD from Kansas State University in bovine mammary physiology and in swine reproduction. Her post-doctoral work at Cornell University in New York focused in mastitis and in Johne’s disease in cattle. Dr. Quesnell worked at Pfizer Animal Health and Zoetis in Antibacterials and Immunomodulators Discovery. She has served on the Milk Quality and on the Research Committee for the National Mastitis Council, and is currently the Research and Product Development Director for TransAgra International Inc.
Review: university and independent research was designed to document responses of delivering fermented, stabilized, inactivated cultured bacteria (CULBAC) to animals. Investigations were completed with the objective of solving specific problems in feeding and management of various livestock species, including monogastric and ruminant.
Ruminants experience unique digestive challenges centered on microbial balance. Cattle fed CULBAC demonstrated improved fermentation in rumen during shipping stress (reflected by pH and VFA production); lowered fecal coliform concentration; decreased death rate to 5.15% from a 10.3% death rate among control calves; increased ruminal bacterial count and diversity, milk yield, milk fat and protein; and lowered milk somatic cell count and use of medicated interventions in dairy cattle. Ruminant nutritionists conducted digestion studies in-vitro in sheep rumen and in-vivo in lambs showing decreased methane production and increased propionic acid production and digestibility (8% to more than 21%) of low- and high-fiber diets with CULBAC exposure.
Research in monogastric animals demonstrated improved feed-to-gain ratio, feed efficiency, and a significant improvement in dietary fiber digestibility in growing swine, and decreased incidence and severity of scours (P<.05) in response to dietary levels of CULBAC. Studies recorded CULBAC-assisted rates of weight gain 14.1% better and feed conversions 11.3% better than in untreated pigs. Japanese researchers found that newborn pigs given CULBAC had increased weight gain, 71% greater increase in the amount of IgA in their intestinal walls, decreased incidence of scours and coliform counts in the cardiac region of the stomach compared with pigs not treated with CULBAC
Madeleine Karlsson studied with the Institute for Integrative Nutrition and is a certified Holistic Health & Nutrition Coach. In her work, Madeleine helps her clients mend their relationship with food, improve their health and optimize their weight by learning how to eat intuitively. She is also an international speaker, corporate consultant and natural food chef.
Statement of the Problem: There has never been a time in history where we’ve had more information available about nutrition but there has never been a time when people have been more confused about what they should eat either. In addition to this, the market has been flooded with millions of man made products that promise optimal health. The abundance of information, of conflicting studies and of marketing messages is creating confusion in people’s mind about what to eat. The purpose of my work is to help my clients reconnect with their intuition in order to work out what type of fuel works best for them. This is a completely different approach from the mainstream but one that delivers amazing results because it relies on the body’s intelligence as a compass about what & when to eat. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An inter subjective experiment instructing subjects to eliminate all processed foods, to eat a whole foods diet and to use meditation as a way to tune in with their inner wisdom over a period of 4 weeks. Findings: The subjects of the study all lost weight despite not having to follow a meal plan or a calorie controlled diet. They all reported higher energy level, improved digestive health and a better mood. One subject had high blood pressure and was taking medication for it but it came down to normal levels after only 3 weeks on the program. Another subject is in the process of coming off mood stabilizing medication and a third subject has not had a bulimic episode since she took part in the program. Conclusion & Significance: The human body is fitted with an inner wisdom, an intuition, that guides us to optimal health & weight when we follow it. Just like animals, we are guided to the right fuel at the right time if we rely exclusively on foods we find in nature. Even though bigger studies remain to be done, it shows that we have an inner guidance that is perhaps more powerful and reliable than our mind to optimize our fuel and to heal.
Government College University, Pakistan
Haseeb Anwar has completed his Doctoral degree from the Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan in 2011. Thereafter, he joined the Department of Microbiology from Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan as an Assistant Professor. In 2013, he joined the Department of Physiology as an Incharge of the Department in the same University to date. He has published more than 30 articles in international journals, and presented in more than 15 conferences and won several research projects and international trainings since 2012 to date. He recently received certificate of appreciation and research productivity award.
The gastrointestinal tract is a multifaceted ecosystem host to an assorted and highly evolved microbial community comprised of different microbial species. The interactions that occur between this multifarious microbial community and the host have become the focus of scientific research due to involvement of deficient or compromised microflora in the increased occurrence of illnesses. Probiotics are composite of these live microbial preparations which can be used as supplementation to boost or alter the gut microbial ecology. However, the viability and adaptation of these supplemented microbial population is of great concern. Current project is designed to investigate the efficacy of locally prevailing microbial species (LP group) compared with the commercially available probiotic supplements (IP group), which are imported in nature. The significance was tested regarding the oxidative stress markers, liver enzymes, cholesterol profile and hormonal dynamics in albino Wistar rat model. Total oxidant status decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in the LP group as compared to IP and control (Cont.). The TAC was improved (P≤0.05) in LP as compared to the IP group. Liver enzymes AST, ALT and total cholesterol decreased (P≤0.05) in LP group as compared to IP. Growth and luteinizing hormone decreased (P≤0.05) in IP as compared to LP. The use of local probiotic species shows promising results regarding the reduction in oxidative stress, liver enzymes and cholesterol over the imported probiotic species.
Hanyang University, Republic of Korea
Physiological properties of water-soluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) and their remained residues after removal of EPS from probiotic kefir were determined in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. EPS solutions had rheological properties and lower viscosity than β-glucan (BG). EPS significantly suppressed the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing 5% EPS, 5% -glucan (BG, viscous soluble fi ber), 8% residues, or microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 4 weeks. EPS supplementation significantly reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and plasma VLDL-cholesterol concentration compared with the control (p<0.05). The residues and BG also significantly reduced body weight gain, but reduction of adipose tissue weight did not reach statistical significance, suggesting anti-obesity effect of EPS is due to viscosity as well as possible additional factor. EPS supplementation significantly enhanced abundance of genera Akkermansia in feces. These data indicate that EPS has significant anti-obesity effects, which is possibly involved in altered intestinal microbiota.
Overview: According to the new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, powdered infant formula (PIF) should be reconstituted at 70°C in order to destroy any contaminant which may exist in PIF. However, at this temperature, probiotic bacteria (PB) which may be contained in PIF may also be destroyed thus the advantages of probiotics will not be manifested. A new PB delivery system based on a unique microencapsulation technology, which has been developed by PolyCaps company, could perfectly protect PB against hot water (70°C) during the reconstitution of PIF. The microcapsules dissolve immediately after cooling the liquid
to the feeding temperature and the alive PB were fi nally released in the baby milk bottle. Additionally, the microencapsulation system could provide the PB with a low water activity (aw) environment which allowed a high viability and an extended shelf life of the final product for at least two years.
Introduction: Recently, WHO has issued new guidelines for reconstituting PIF (World Health Organization, 2007). The new guidelines are largely based on the fi ndings which showed that PIF is not a sterile product and may often be contaminated with pathogens such as E. Sakazakii and Salmonella, which can cause serious illness and sometimes death. According to the new WHO guidelines, PIF should be reconstituted in water at 70°C to prevent any risk of contamination. However, under the new WHO preparation guidelines, the probiotic bacteria which may be included in PIF may die or may be seriously harmed. PolyCaps has developed a unique microencapsulation technology which protects probiotic (PB) against hot water (70°C) during reconstitution of
PIF in accordance with the new WHO guidelines where the harmful pathogens will be destroyed or disactivated. The microcapsules are designed to dissolve immediately after cooling the liquid to the feeding temperature releasing the alive PB. The structure of the microcapsule is schematically illustrated in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A schematic illustration of the microcapsules structure comprising a core containing the bacteria and the coating layers comprising “smart” polymers.
Methods: Microencapsulation of PB (Bifi dobacterium breve) was carried out using an Innojet Ventilus 2.5 coater machine (Romaco Innojet Herbert Huttlin, Steinen, Germany). The test method for the survival rate of PB in PIF during the reconstitution at 70°C, was adapted from the new guidelines issued by WHO in collaboration with FAO of the United Nations (World Health Organization, 2007).
Conclusion: The PolyCaps microencapsulation technology provides the bacteria with superior stability during reconstitution at 70°C (according to new WHO guidelines) as compared to the pure PB. Likewise, the technology provides the bacteria with superior stability during the shelf life, at least for 2 years, even in a not totally-sealed packaging.
Dairy Research Institute, Ltd., Dpt. of Microbiology and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
Gabriela Krausová (born Kunová), graduated in 2006 at University of Veterinary Medicine in Košice, Slovakia, in 2014 finished her doctoral studies at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Czech Republic. Since 2008 she works at Dairy Research Institute in Prague as a researcher and since 2014 as the head of Dpt. of Microbiology and Technology. She is the author or co-author of 11 papers indexed in the Web of Science database, 20 articles in reviewed journals, 2 certified methodologies, 1 patent and 10 utility models. Topics of interest: food microbiology, functional foods, probiotics, prebiotics, food hygiene, etc.
Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolates were obtained from samples of cowˊs colostrum, excrements and saliva of calves and piglets, as well as from infant´s faeces. Individual strains were identified using MALDI-TOF and characterized for their properties having an affinity to adhesion. The most frequently isolated strain was Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus casei subsp. paracasei. Bifidobacteria were isolated only from calves and piglets, B. thermophilum and B. pseudolongum from their excrements and B. longum from saliva of calves. To determine adhesion properties of selected strains in vitro, the mixture of Caco-2 and HT-29-MTX cell culture was used as a model. Furthermore, the method of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) - hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties of the strains were tested. Generally, all tested isolates (n=20) were able to adhere to the tissue model in vitro. However, a great diversity in adherence ability among individual strains was observed. The highest adherence capacity (37.22%) was found in the Lactobacillus amylovorus strain originating from cow´s colostrum. Adherence above 30% was observed primarily in strains islated from infant´s faeces and subsequently, from colostrum. The highest hydrophobicity (˃ 90%) was determined for the B. thermophilum T11B strain (excrements of calves) and high hydrophobicity (˃ 70%) was also found in the K18 L. reuteri (colostrum) and S4B B. thermophilum (excrements of piglet) strains. The highest percentage of autoaggregation was observed in strains of lactobacilli isolated from colostrum. Perspective strains will be further characterized focusing on their properties important for potential probiotic strains.